Chemical Safety Information


  • Chlorine Safety

  • Fluoride Safety

  • Sodium Hypochlorite Safety

Chlorine Gas Safety & Use Considerations


For almost 100 years now, chlorine gas has been the primary disinfectant used in treating municipal water supplies worldwide. Today in the United States, even with alternative methods being widely available, chlorine gas is still chosen as the primary disinfection method for more than 65% of all drinking water. Using chlorine gas for disinfection is a logical choice in that it is very effective and economical, and easy to operate and maintain. Many will also argue that chlorine gas is actually the safest disinfection method due to the fact that is it now almost always fed under vacuum, greatly reducing any chance of leaks. Although chlorine gas is a hazardous substance, most people do not know the facts and safety statistics of its use in water disinfection. Without this information many tend to overestimate the hazards of chlorine gas when comparing it to alternative disinfection methods such as sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite.


Chlorine Safety Documents:

Chlorine Safety For Water & Wastewater Facilities  

  Chlorine Safety Tips: Texas Department on Insurance  

Chlorine Safety For Production & Use Facilities

  Chlorine Safety Facts  
Chlorine Safety Handbook  


Information Regarding Chlorine Accidents:

Australian Study on Chlorine Gas vs. Hypo accidents

  Newspaper Articles on Hypochlorite Accidents  

Article on perception vs. reality of Chlorine gas safety  

  Powerpoint perception vs. reality of Chlorine gas safety  
British HSE study on Chlorine Vs Hypo accidents  
  Accident database on all chlorine compounds  


Helpful Websites:

Chlorine Institute Website


Fluoridation Facts,  Safety & Use Considerations


Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay. Its use began in 1945, following studies of children in a region where higher levels of fluoride occur naturally in the water. Researchers discovered that moderate fluoridation prevents tooth decay, and as of 2004 about 400 million people worldwide received fluoridated water. Although excessive water fluoridation can cause dental fluorosis (which can alter the appearance of developing teeth) it is not considered to be a public-health concern. There is no clear evidence of any other adverse effects. Although this is true, water fluoridation is still a controversial practice and therefore its application and use is strictly monitored and controlled.


Fluoridation System Design & Operation:

CDC Fluoride System Design Recommendation  


CDC Fluoride System Operation Recommendations



Fluoride Equipment & Additives

Fluoride Equipment Considerations


Fluoride Additive Facts & Data  



Helpful Websites:

Center For Disease Control


Sodium Hypochlorite Safety & Use Considerations


Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) is the liquid form of chlorine and is created by scrubbing chlorine gas through a Sodium Hydroxide solution to make concentrations that vary from 6%-15% concentrations by weight. In contrast to chlorine gas which can be stored indefinitely, sodium hypochlorite is an unstable compound which will degrade in strength depending on time, temperature, UV light and pH. Sodium Hypochlorite is widely considered to be “safer” when compared to chlorine gas; however, this is not always the case. Good safety practices must be taken with sodium hypochlorite in order to protect workers and the surrounding community. This especially relates to preventing the unintended mixture with other chemicals which can lead to hazardous chlorine gas releases.


Sodium Hypochlorite Safety Documents:

Sodium Hypochlorite incompatibility warning  

  Sodium Hypochlorite safety checklist  

Sodium Hypochlorite incompatibility chart

  Chlorine Safety Facts  
Sodium Hypochlorite tank labeling information  


Sodium Hypochlorite Safety Handbooks

Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook – OxyChem

  Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook – Pioneer  

Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook – Powell  

  Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook- Odyssey  


Miscellaneous Sodium Hypochlorite Information

Sodium Hypochlorite Decay Curves  

  AWWA Perchlorate Formation Research  

Sodium Hypochlorite Degradation Data

  Chlorate and Chlorite Fact Sheet  
Sodium Hypochlorite Dilution Information  
  Perchlorate in Sodium Hypochlorite  


Information Regarding Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents:

Australian Study on Chlorine Gas vs Hypo accidents

  Powerpoint perception vs. reality of Chlorine gas safety  

Newspaper articles on Hypochlorite accidents  

  Accident database on all chlorine compounds  
Article on perception vs. reality of Chlorine gas safety  


Helpful Websites:

Chlorine Institute Website